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Work mentioned in the press





Connahs H, S Tlili, J van Creij, TYJ Loo, T Banerjee, TE Saunders, A Monteiro (in press) Distal-less activates butterfly eyespots consistent with a reaction-diffusion process. Development.

Huq M, S Bhardwaj and A Monteiro (2019) Male Bicyclus anynana butterflies choose mates based on their ventral UV-reflective eyespot centers. Journal of Insect Science ()

Dion E, A Monteiro, C Nieberding (2019) The role of learning on insect and spider sexual behaviors, sexual trait evolution and speciation Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6:225 ()

Tan YQ, E Dion and A Monteiro (2018) Haze smoke impacts the survival and development of butterflies. Scientific Reports 8:15667 ()

Palmer DH, YQ Tan, SD Finkbeiner, AD Briscoe, A Monteiro and MR Kronforst (2018) Experimental field tests of Batesian mimicry in the swallowtail butterfly Papilio polytes. Ecology and Evolution 8:7657-66()

Banerjee T and A Monteiro (2018) CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing in Bicyclus anynana butterflies. Methods and Protocols 1,16;doi:10.3390/mps1020016 ()

Video protocol available here

Matsuoka Y and A Monteiro (2018) Melanin pathway genes regulate color and morphology of butterfly wing scales. Cell Reports 24: 56-65 ()

Prakash A and A Monteiro (2018) apterous A specifies dorsal wing patterns and sexual traits in butterflies. Proc R Soc Lond B ()

Low XH and A Monteiro (2018) Dorsal forewing white spots of male Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) not maintained by female mate choice. Journal of Insect Behavior 31:29-41 ()

Bhardwaj S, KL Prudic, A Bear, M Das Gupta, WF Cheong, MR Wenk, A Monteiro (2018). Sex differences in 20-hydroxyecdysone hormone levels control sexual dimorphism in butterfly wing patterns. Molecular Biology and Evolution 35:465-472 ()

Ozsu N and A Monteiro (2017) Wound healing, calcium signaling and other novel pathways are associated with the formation of butterfly eyespots. BMC Genomics 18:788 ()

Monteiro, A (2017) Physiology and evolution of wing pattern plasticity in Bicyclus butterflies: a critical review of the literaure. In Diversity and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patters: An Integrative Approach. Eds Sekimura, T and HF Nijhout, Springer. pp 91-105 ()

Xiong G, X Tong, T Gai, C Li, L Qiao, A Monteiro, H Hu, M Han, X Ding, S Wu, Z Xiang, C Lu & F Dai (2017) Body shape and coloration of silkworm larvae are influenced by a novel cuticular protein. Genetics 207: 1053-66 ()

Desplan, C, N Plachta, A Monteiro, K Guillemin, and J Briscoe (2017) What is the future of Developmental Biology? Cell 170(1), 6-7 ()

Ozsu N, QY Chan, B Chen, M Das Gupta and A Monteiro (2017) Wingless is a positive regulator of eyespot color patterns in Bicyclus anynana butterflies. Developmental Biology 429(1): 177-185 ()

Ng*, SY, S Bhardwaj* and A Monteiro (2017) Males become choosier in response to manipulations of female wing ornaments in dry season Bicyclus anynana butterflies. J. Insect Science 17(4): 81 (*co-first authors) () (top downladed paper of JIS in 2017)

Nowell, RW, B Elsworth, V Oostra, BJ Zwaan, CW Wheat, M Saastamoninen, IJ Saccheri, AE Van't Hof, BR Wasik, H Connahs, ML Aslam, S Kumar, RJ Challis, A Monteiro, PM Brakefield, M Blaster (2017) A high-coverage draft genome of the mycalesine butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Gigascience 6: 1-7 Doi:10.1093/gigascience/gix035 ()

Bear, A, KL Prudic and A Monteiro (2017) Steroid hormone signaling during development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. PLoS One 2(3): e0174403 ()

Zhang, L, A Martin, MW Perry, KL vd Burg, Y Matsuoka, A Monteiro, RD Reed (2017) Genetic basis of melanin pigmentation in butterfly wings. Genetics 205: 1537-1550 ()

Wee, J and A Monteiro (2017) Yellow and the novel aposematic signal, red, protect Delias butterflies from predators. PLoS One 12(1): e0168243 ()

Dion, E, A Monteiro and JY Yew (2016) Phenotypic plasticity in sex pheromone production in Bicyclus anynana butterflies. Scientific Reports 6:39002 | DOI: 10.1038/srep39002 ()

Prakash, A and A Monteiro (2016) Molecular mechanisms of secondary sexual trait development in insects. Current Opinion in Insect Science 17:40-48 ()

Monteiro, A and M Das Gupta (2016). Identifying co-opted networks and causative mutations in the origin of novel complex traits. Current Topics in Developmental Biology 119: 205-226 ()

Chen, B, WH Piel, and A Monteiro (2016). The Distal-less homeobox genes of insects and spiders: genomic organization, function, regulation and evolution. Insect Science 23: 335-352 ()

Labandeira, CC, Q Yang, JA Santiago-Blay, CL Hotton, A Monteiro, Y-J Wang, Y Goreva, S Shih, S Siljeström, TR Rose, DL Dilcher, and D Ren (2016) The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies. Proc R Soc Lond B 283: 20152894 ()

Westerman, E and A Monteiro (2016) Rearing temperature influences adult response to changes in mating status. PLoS One 11(2): e0146546()

Ho, S, S Schachat, WH Piel and A Monteiro (2016). Attack risk for butterflies changes with eyespot number and size. Roy Soc Open Sci 3:150614 ()

Macias-Muñoz, A, G Smith, A Monteiro and AD Briscoe (2016). Transcriptome-wide differential expression in Bicyclus anynana butterflies: Female vision-related genes are more plastic. Molecular Biology and Evolution 33:79-92 ()

Monteiro, A, X Tong, A Bear, SF Liew, S Bhardwaj, BR Wasik, A Dinwiddie, C Bastianelli, WF Cheong, MR Wenk, H Cao, and KL Prudic (2015) Differential expression of ecdysone receptor leads to variation in phenotypic plasticity across serial homologs. PLoS Genetics 11(9):e1005529 ()

Stoehr, AM, X Tong, O Podlaha, and A. Monteiro (2015) Progress towards germ-line transformation of the butterfly Pieris rapae L. Gene Technology 4: 123. doi: 10.4172/2329-6682.S1-001 ()

Das Gupta, M, SK Chan and A Monteiro (2015) Natural loss of eyeless/Pax6 in eyes of Bicyclus anynana adult butterflies likely leads to exponential decrease of eye fluorescence in transgenics. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0132882. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0132882 ()

Schachat, S, JC Oliver, and A Monteiro (2015) Nymphalid eyespots are co-opted to novel wing locations following a similar pattern in independent lineages. BMC Evol. Biol. 15:20 ()

Monteiro A (2015) Origin, development, and evolution of butterfly eyespots. Annual Review of Entomology 60:253-71 ()

Prudic KL, AM Stoehr, BR Wasik, and A Monteiro (2015) Eyespots deflect predator attack increasing fitness and promoting the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 282 (1798): 20141531()

a video showing how mantids attack Bicyclus butterflies with eyespots can be seen here

Tong X, S Hrycaj, O Podlaha, A Popadic and A Monteiro (2014). Over-expression of Ultrabithorax alters embryonic body plan and wing patterns in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Developmental Biology.()

Wasik, BR, SF Liew, D Lillien, AJ Dinwiddie, H Noh, H Cao and A Monteiro (2014) Artificial selection for structural color on butterfly wings and comparison to natural evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA ()

Oliver JC, JM Beaulieu, LF Gall, WH Piel, and A Monteiro (2014) Nymphalid eyespot serial homologs originate as a few individualized modules. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B ()

Westerman EL, C Drucker, and A Monteiro (2014) Male and female mating behavior is dependent on social context in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Journal of Insect Behavior ()

Westerman EL, N Chirathivat, E Schyling, and A Monteiro (2014) Mate preference for a phenotypically plastic trait is learned, and may facilitate preference-phenotype matching. Evolution ()

Chen B and A Monteiro (2014) A method for inducible gene over-expression and down-regulation in emerging model species using pogostick. M F Ochs (ed). Gene Function Analysis, Methods in Molecular Biology. 1101: 249-266. Humana Press, Springer, USA ()

Tokita C, JC Oliver, and A Monteiro (2013) A survey of eyespot sexual dimorphism across nymphalid butterflies. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2013: article 926702 ()

Westerman EL and A Monteiro (2013) Odor influences whether females learn to prefer or to avoid wing patterns of male butterflies. Animal Behavior 109: 10948-10953 ()

A nice summary was written about this work by Michelle Pelissier Scott, Executive Editor of Animal Behavior. You can read it here.

Oliver JO, D Ramos, KL Prudic and A Monteiro (2013) Temporal gene expression variation associated with eyespot size plasticity in Bicyclus anynana. PLoS ONE 8(6): e65830 ()

Bear A and A Monteiro (2013) Both cell-autonomous mechanisms and hormones contribute to sexual development in vertebrates and insects. BioEssays 35(8): 725-732 ()

Bear A and A Monteiro (2013) Male courtship rate plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana is controlled by temperature experienced during the pupal and adult stages. PLoS ONE 8(5): e64061 ()

Monteiro A, B Chen, D Ramos, JC Oliver, X Tong, M Guo, WK Wang, L Fazzino, F Kamal (2013) Distal-less regulates eyespot size and melanization in Bicyclus butterflies. J Exp Zool B 320(5): 321-331()

Monteiro A (2013) Evolution and development: molecules. Princeton Guide to Evolution. J Lossos (editor). Princeton University Press ()

Stoehr AM, JF Walker, and A Monteiro (2013) Spalt expression and the development of melanic color patterns in pierid butterflies. EvoDevo 4:6 ()

Losos, JB, SJ Arnold, G Bejerano, ED Brodie III, D Hibbett, HE Hoekstra, DP Mindell, A Monteiro, C Moritz, HA Orr, DA Petrov, SS Renner, RE Rickefs, PS Soltis, TL Turner (2013) Evolutionary Biology for the 21st Century. PLoS Biology 11(1):e1001466 ()

Everett, A, X Tong, AD Briscoe, and A Monteiro (2012) Phenotypic plasticity in opsin expression in a butterfly compound eye complements sex role reversal. BMC Evolutionary Biology 12:232 ()

Tong X, A Lindemann and A Monteiro (2012) Differential involvement of hedgehog signaling in butterfly wing and eyespot development. PLoS ONE 7(12): e51087()

Oliver JO, X Tong, LF Gall, WH PIel and A Monteiro (2012) A single origin for nymphalid butterfly eyespots followed by widespread loss of associated gene expresson. PLoS Genetics 8(8): e1002893 ()

Westerman, EL, A Hodgins-Davis, A Dinwiddie, and A Monteiro (2012) Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109(30): 12260 ()

Kronforst, M, GS Barsh, A Kopp, J Mallet, A Monteiro, SP Mullen, M Protas, EB Rosenblum, CJ Schneider, and H Hoekstra (2012) Unraveling the thread of nature's tapestry: the genetics of diversity and convergence in animal pigmentation. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 25: 411-433 ()

Monteiro A (2012) Gene regulatory networks reused to build novel traits. BioEssays 34:181-186 ()

Piel, WH and A Monteiro (2011) Flies in the ointment make for convincing poop. Yale Environmental News. 16:2 ()

Chen, B. S Hrycaj, JB Schinko, O Podlaha, EA Wimmer, A Popadic, and A Monteiro (2011) Pogostick: A versatile piggyBac vector for inducible gene over-expression and down-regulation in emerging model systems. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18659 ()

Oliver, JC and A Monteiro (2011) On the origins of sexual dimorphism in butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B (online version-)

Prudic KL, C Jeon, H Cao and A Monteiro (2011) Developmental plasticity in sexual roles explains mutual sexual ornamentation. Science 331:73-75 ()

Wolfe, JM, JC Oliver and A Monteiro (2011) Evolutionary reduction of the first thoracic limb in butterflies. J. Insect Sci. 11:66 ()

Terenius, O et al. (2011) RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design. J. Insect Physiol. 57:231-245. ()

Monteiro A (2010) Biological research at butterfly farms in Costa Rica. Yale Environmental News. 16:1 ()

Bear, A, A Simons, E Westerman and A Monteiro (2010) The genetic, morphological, and physiological characterization of a dark larval cuticle mutation in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. PLoS ONE ()

Monteiro A and KL Prudic (2010) Multiple approaches to study color pattern evolution in butterflies. Trends in Evolutionary Biology 2:e2()

Monteiro A (2009) Developmental Biology meets Ecology. Cell 138: 421-422 () (Book review of Gilbert and Epel's 2009, "Ecological Developmental Biology: Integrating Epigenetics, Medicine, and Evolution")

Oliver J, Robertson KA and A Monteiro (2009) Accomodating natural and sexual selection in butterfly wing pattern evolution Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B ()

Monteiro A and O Podlaha (2009) Wings, horns, and butterfly eyespots: How do complex traits evolve? PLoS Biology 7(2): e1000037 ()

Silveira M and A Monteiro (2009) Automatic recognition and measurement of butterfly eyespot patterns. BioSystems 95:130-136 ().

Abzhanov A, C Extavour, A Groover, S Hodges, H Hoekstra, E Kramer and A Monteiro (2008) Are we there yet? Tracking the development of new model systems. Trends in Genetics 24:353-360 ().

Monteiro A (2008) Alternative models for the evolution of eyespots and of serial homology on lepidopteran wings. Bioessays 30: 358-366 ()

Ramos DM and A Monteiro (2007) Transgenic approaches to study wing color pattern development in Lepidoptera. Molecular Biosystems 3: 530-535()

Ramos DM and A Monteiro (5/28/2007) An in situ protocol for pupal wings of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 4 (

Golden K, V Saji, N Markwarth, B Chen, and A Monteiro (2007) In vivo electroporation of DNA into the wing epidermis of a butterfly. Journal of Insect Science 7:53 ()

Monteiro A, B Chen, L Scott, L Vedder, JH Prijs, A Belicha, PM Brakefield (2007) The combined effect of two mutations that alter serially homologous color pattern elements on the fore and hindwings of a butterfly. BMC Genetics 8:22 ()

Costanzo, K and A Monteiro (2007) The use of chemical and visual cues in female choice in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 274:845-851 ()

Ramos, DM, F Kamal, EA Wimmer, A Cartwright, A Monteiro (2006) Temporal and spatial control of transgene expression using laser induction of the hsp70 promoter. BMC Developmental Biology 6: 55 ()

Monteiro A, G Glaser, S Stockslagger, N Glansdorp, and DM Ramos (2006) Comparative insights into questions of lepidopteran wing pattern homology. BMC Developmental Biology 6:52 ()

Chen, B, T Kayukawa, A Monteiro, Y Ishikawa (2006) Cloning and characterization of the HSP70 gene, and its expression in response to diapause and thermal stress in the onion maggot, Delia antiqua. Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ()

Chen, B, D Zhong, and A Monteiro (2006) Comparative genomics and evolution of the HSP90 family of genes across all kingdoms of organisms. BMC Genomics 7: 156 ()

Chen, B, WH Piel, L Gui, E Bruford, and A Monteiro (2005) The HSP90 family of genes in the human genome: insights into their divergence and evolution. Genomics 86: 627-637 ()

Chen, B, T Kayukawa, A Monteiro, and Y. Ishikawa (2005) The expression of HSP90 gene in response to winter and summer diapauses and thermal-stress in the onion maggot, Delia antiqua. Insect Molecular Biology 14: 697-702 ()

Robertson, KA and A Monteiro (2005) Female Bicyclus anynana butterflies choose males on the basis of their dorsal UV-reflective eyespot pupils. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 272: 1541-1546 ()

Masci, J and A Monteiro (2005) Visualizations of the early embryo of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Zygote13: 139-144.()

Chen, B, Y Ishikawa, T Kayukawa, H Jiang, A Monteiro, S Hoshizaki (2005) DaTrypsin, a novel clip-domain serine proteinase is upregulated during winter and summer diapauses of the onion maggot, Delia antique. Gene 347:115-123. ()

Marcus, JM, DM Ramos, and A Monteiro (2004) Germ line transformation of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271: S263-S265 ( )

Arbesman, S, L Enthoven, A Monteiro (2003) Ancient Wings: animating the evolution of butterfly wings patterns. BioSystems 71: 289-295. ()

Try the web based animation (Ancient Wings) that reconstructs the putative ancestral ventral hindwing patterns of 54 of the 80 species of Bicyclus butterflies, and morphs these patterns across the phylogenetic tree of Bicyclus.

Brakefield, PM and A Monteiro (2003) "The evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns" In Ecology and Evolution Taking Flight: Butterflies as Model Study Systems. Chicago Press.

Monteiro, A, J Prijs, M Bax, T Hakkaart and PM Brakefield (2003) Mutants highlight the modular control of butterfly eyespot patterns. Evolution & Development 5:180-187. ()

McMillan O, A Monteiro and D Kapan (2002) Development and evolution on the wing. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:125-133 ()

Janssen J, A Monteiro and PM Brakefield (2001). Correlations between scale structure and pigmentation in butterfly wings. Evolution & Development 3: 415-423. ()

Brunetti CR, SE Selegue, A Monteiro, V French, PM Brakefield, & SB Carroll (2001)The generation and diversification of butterfly eyespot colour patterns. Current Biology 11: 1578-1585. ()

Monteiro A, V French, H Metz, G Smith and PM Brakefield (2001) Butterfly eyespot patterns: evidence for an underlying morphogen gradient. Acta Biotheoretica 49:77-88. ()

Monteiro A and N Pierce (2001) Phylogeny of Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) inferred from COI, COII and EF1a gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18: 264-281. ()

Monteiro A, PM Brakefield and V French (1997) The genetics and development of an eyespot pattern in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana:: response to selection for eyespot shape. Genetics 146: 287-294 ()

Monteiro A, PM Brakefield and V French (1997) The relationship between eyespot shape and wing shape in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana:: a genetic and morphometrical approach. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 10: 787-802 ()

Monteiro A, PM Brakefield and V French (1997) Butterfly eyespots: the genetics and development of the color rings. Evolution 51: 1207-1216 ()

Brakefield PM, J Gates, D Keys, F Kesbeke, P Wijngaarden, A Monteiro, V French, and S Carroll (1996) Development, plasticity, and evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns. Nature 384: 236-242.

French V and A Monteiro (1994) Butterfly wings: Colour patterns and now gene expression patterns. BioEssays 16: 789-791

Monteiro A, PM Brakefield and V French (1994) The evolutionary genetics and developmental basis of wing pattern variation in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Evolution 48: 1147-1157 ()


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Work mentioned in the media

Scientific Reports 2018 The Straits Times (Singapore)
  Wild Singapore
Cell Reports 2018 Synthego
  Daily Mail (UK)
Proc. Roy. Soc Lond B 2018 Nature (UK)
  Entomology Today (USA)
  The Straits Times (Singapore)
  NUS News
Molecular Biology and Evolution 2018 Entomology Today
Genetics 2017 Genetics Society of America
Interview with A. Monteiro 2017 Khamama
PLoS One 2017 The Straits Times (Singapore)
  The Straits Times
  FOS, NUS News
  NUS News
Proc. Roy. Soc Lond B 2016


  Fox News
  National Geographic
  Washington Post
Annual Review of Entomology 2015 Sunday Times (Singapore)
Proc. Roy. Soc. 2015 Nature (UK)
  CBC Radio (Canada)
  Discovery News (USA)
  Science Daily (USA)
  The Times (UK)
  Yale Institute of Biospheric Studies (USA)
PNAS 2014 National Public Radio (NPR) (USA)
  National Geographic
  Discover Magazine (USA)
  Diario Uno (Argentina)
  Khaleej Times (United Arab Emirates)
  Vesti.Ru (Russia)
PNAS 2012 Yale News (USA)
  MaxiScience (France)
  Veja (Brazil)
Yale Environmental News 2011 National Geographic (USA)
Science 2011 Wall Street Journal (USA)
  BBC Earth News (UK)
  Guardian (UK)
  Yale Daily News (USA)
  Huffington Post (USA)
  Daily Mirror (UK)
  Daily India (India)
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  US News (USA)
  ABC (Spain)
  Modern Ghana (Ghana)
Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 2009 Nature (UK)
Yale Daily News (USA)
BMC Developmental UB News (USA)
Biology 2006 The Telegraph (UK)
Nature (UK)
Biotechniques (USA) (USA)
Die Welt (Germany)
Science Daily (USA)
Planet (Netherlands)
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Waar Maar Raar (Netherlands)
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NRC Handelsblad (Netherlands)
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BRIC (South Korea)
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IMAC (Mexico)
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NPR's reporter, Rae Ellen Bichell, did a piece on "How animals hacked the rainbow and got stumped on blue", connecting to some of our work on blue structural color in butterflies.

NPR's reporter,Flora Lichtman, working for Ira Flatow's Science Friday, produced a nice video summary of some of our work with the transgenic butterflies.

Our work with transgenic butterflies was the focus of a module on the "molecular biology of butterflies", part of a larger exhibit held at he Natural History Museum in Lisbon (Borboletas atraves do tempo). The exhibit, which centered on the study and conservation of Iberian butterflies was in Lisbon until December 2007 and is now travelling to other Portuguese cities and countries in Europe.

Work in the lab was also featured in the Discovery Channel and in the Portuguese television series "Geração Cientísta" (Generation Scientist) in 2006, where 26 young Portuguese scientists working throughout the world were interviewed about their work. The aim of the series (13 episodes) was to introduce the "lives of scientists" to the younger generations, to desmystify the scientific profession, and to encourage young people to follow a career in science. You can see the clip here.

Kendra Robertson's work on the role of eyespots in female choice was recreated in the first episode of a PBS Nature two-part series "What females want" and "What males are willing to give". You can watch the Bicyclus clip here.